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大学何位 大学何为

字体:[ ]    作者:    人气:1119    发布日期:2018-08-21

作者:张来斌《光明日报》( 2018年08月21日 13版)

【论教】  

编者按

  “一带一路”是促进相关各国互学互鉴、互利共赢的重大倡议,因其顺应时代潮流,符合各国人民利益而具有广阔前景。倡议提出五年来,相关国家在多领域的合作呈现良好态势,在经济、金融、外交、文化、教育、法律、科技等方面,产生了全方位影响。高等教育在“一带一路”建设中具有基础性、支撑性和引领性的重要作用,有为才能有位,大学何位?大学何为?本文把大学的发展置于“一带一路”的宏阔背景下去考量,提出如何在服务“一带一路”建设中提升高校自我发展能力和水平是国内高校亟须思考的重要命题,具有一定的启示意义。

1.新形势与新机遇

  XIANDAIGAODENGJIAOYUYIQIANNIANLAIDEFAZHAN,JINGLILEYOUOUZHOUZHONGXINDAOYINGGUO、DEGUOHEMEIGUOZHONGXINDEBIANQIAN,LISHIJINGYANBIAOMING,SHIJIEYILIUDAXUEWUBUSHIZAIFUWUZIJIGUOJIAFAZHANZHONGCHENGZHANGQILAIDE。“YIDAIYILU”CHANGYIDESHISHI,WEIZHONGGUOGAODENGJIAOYUZAIRENCAIPEIYANG、KEJIHEZUOHEWENHUAJIAOLIUDENGFANGMIANDEFAZHANTIGONGLEXINDENEIZAIDONGLIHEWAIZAIJIYU,WEIZHONGGUOGAOXIAOZOUXIANGSHIJIEWUTAIKAIPILEXINDELUJING。

  “YIDAIYILU”JIANSHE,JICHUSHESHI、NENGYUANKAIFA、GUOJICHANNENGHEZUOXIANXING。GENJUGUOXINBANFABUHUISHANGDEXIAOXI,JIEZHI6YUEDI,WOGUOQIYEZAI“YIDAIYILU”XIANGGUANGUOJIACHENGDANLE3116GETOUZIXIANGMUHEGONGCHENG。ZHEIXIELINGYUDUOWEIZIBENHEJISHUMIJIXINGYE,ZIJINHEJICHUSHESHI、GAOSHUIPINGZHUANJIAHEGONGCHENGSHIDOUJUYOUXIQUEXING,GAOXIAOZUOWEIKEJIDIYISHENGCHANLI、CHUANGXINDIYIQUDONGLIHERENCAIDIYIZIYUANDEZHONGYAOJIEHEDIAN,ZUOWEIJINGJIHESHEHUIFAZHANZUIZHONGYAODEQIANYINLI,BIRANYAOSHUNYINGZHUANGBEI、JISHUHEGONGCHENGFUWU“ZOUCHUQU”DEHEZUOTISUQUSHI,SHENDUCANYUJIEJUEJISHUHERENCAIDEXIQUEWENTI。YIGAOSHUIPINGXINGYETESEGAOXIAOWEIDAIBIAODEBUFENGAOXIAOYINQIYUXINGYEDEZHANGQIMIQIELIANXI,YIJINGZAIFUWU“YIDAIYILU”FAZHANZHONGXINGCHENGLEXIANFAYOUSHI。BIRU,ZHONGGUOSHIYOUDAXUE(BEIJING)YISHIYOUQIYEHAIWAIHEZUOXIANGMUWEIYITUO,TONGGUO“XIAO—QI—XIAO”LIANHEHE“XIAO—XIAO”LIANHEDENGFANGSHIWEIQIYEHAIWAIXIANGMU“DINGZHI”ZHUANMENRENCAI,XINGCHENGLE“XUEXIAOZHUDAO、QIYEQUANCHENGHEZUO、ZHENGFUZHICHI、GUOWAIGAOXIAODENGDUOFANGCANYU”DERENCAIPEIYANGXIETONGJIZHI;HEHAIDAXUEZUZHISHISHI“‘YIDAIYILU’SHUILIGAOCENGCIRENCAIJIHUA”WEIYANXIANGUOJIASHUSONGSHUILISHUIDIANBENTUHUARENCAI;ZHONGGUODIZHIDAXUE(WUHAN)ZONGHEKUANGCHAN、HAIYANGJIKONGJIANKEXUEDENGXUEKEYOUSHI,CHENGLI“SICHOUZHILUXUEYUAN”DENG。ZHEIXIEBANXUESHIJIANWEITUIJIN“YIDAIYILU”JIANSHETIGONGLEZHILIZHICHI、KEJIZHICHENGHEWENHUALIJIE。

  DANGQIAN,WOGUOZHENGZAIKAIQIGAODENGJIAOYUQIANGGUODEXINZHENGCHENG。“YIDAIYILU”ZUOWEIQUANFANGWEI、DUOCENGCI、LITIHUADEKAIFANGTIXI,JIANGQUANMIANTISHENGWOGUOZONGHEGUOLIHEGUOJIYINGXIANGLI,DAXUEYAOZAIZHEIYIWEIDADEJIYUZHONGZHAODAOZISHENFAZHANDEQIHEDIANHEZHELIDIAN,JIHUOCHUANGXINFAZHANQIANNENG,CUJINDUOYUANHUA、DUOCENGCIDEZHONGGUOTESESHIJIEYILIUDAXUEKUAISUJIANKANGCHENGZHANG。

2.新问题与新挑战

高频彩平台  WOMENHAIYAOQINGXINGYISHIDAO,“YIDAIYILU”XIANGGUANGUOJIAZAIZONGJIAOWENHUA、GUOJIAZHIDU、JINGJIJIANSHEHEFAZHANMOSHIDENGFANGMIANCUNZAIZHEJUDADECHAYI,MIANDUI“YIDAIYILU”JIANSHEDEXINRENWUHEXINYAOQIU,DAXUEHAIYOUBUSHAOKUNNANHETIAOZHAN。

高频彩平台  SHOUXIANSHISHIYINGDUBUGOU。“YIDAIYILU”DADATISHENGLEWOGUOGAODENGJIAOYUGUOJIHUASHUIPINGYIJIQIYECANYUQUANQIUHUACHANYELIANDEGAILV,MIANDUIXINYILUNGONGYEGEMINGHECHANYEBIANGE,“ZOUCHUQU”DEZHONGGUOQIYEWUBUZAITISHENGCHUANGXINNENGLIHEGUOJIHUAJINGYINGSHUIPINGFANGMIANXIAZHENGONGFU。GAOXIAOZAISHIYINGBINGYINLINGXINGYEQIYEHAIWAIFAZHAN、ZHUANXINGSHENGJIFANGMIANHAIYOUSUOZHIHOU。TUCHUBIAOXIANZAIRENCAIPEIYANGDESHIYINGDUBUGOU,QUESHAOYOUZHENDUIXINGDERENCAIPEIYANGMUBIAO、RENCAIPEIYANGLINIANYIJIKECHENGTIXI;SHIZIDUIWUJIANSHESHIYINGDUBUGOU,QUESHAOJIANJUGUOJIHUASHIYE、YUYANNENGLI、XUESHUSHUIPING、GONGCHENGJISHUNENGLIDEGAOSHUIPINGSHIZI;XUEKEZHUANYEJIANSHESHIYINGDUBUGOU,YANXIANGEGUODEGUOBIEYANJIU、ZHENGZHIJINGJIZHUANGKUANG、FALVFAGUI、XIAOYUZHONGZHUANYEJUNQUESHAOXIANGYINGDEXUEKESHEZHIYIJIJIAOXUEYANJIURENYUAN;KEXUEYANJIUSHIYINGDUBUGOU,BEIDONGCANYUQIYEKEJIGONGGUANJIAODUO,ZHUDONGFUWUDUIJIEQIYECHANYESHENGJIXUQIUHEKAIZHANQIANZHANXINGYANJIUYOUDAIJIAQIANG。

  QICISHIXIETONGXINGBUGOU。YISHIWOGUOYUXIANGGUANGUOJIAGAODENGJIAOYUSHIZHIXINGRONGHEYUXIETONGBUZUQIEBUJUNHENG。ZHANGQIYILAIJIANGHEZUODUIXIANGSUODINGZAIFADAGUOJIA、XIANGLINGUOJIA,ZAIYUZHONGGUOHEZUOLUNWENPAIMINGQIAN20WEIDEGUOJIAZHONG,DABUFENWEIOUMEIRIDENGFADAGUOJIA,SHI“YIDAIYILU”XIANGGUANGUOJIADEZHIYOUXINJIAPO、ELUOSI、YINDUHEYISELIE4GUO;SHUANGBIANHEZUODUO、SANBIANSHENZHIDUOGUOHEZUOSHAO,SANGUOJIYISHANGGUOJIAHEZUOLUNWENJINZHAN7%;QUESHAOYOUXIAODEDUOBIANHEZUOJIZHI,JINGUANLUXUCHENGLILEXIANGGUANGUOJIAYIXIEDAXUELIANMENG,DANLIANMENGHEZUOMUQIANHAIJINXIANYUKAIZHANLUNTAN、JUBANFENGHUIDENGXINGSHI,QUESHAOFANGXIANGXINGHESHIZHIXINGXIETONGHEZUO,SHANGWEINENGLUOSHIZAILIANHEPEIYANGRENCAI、GUOJIKEJIGONGGUANDENGFANGMIAN,GAODENGJIAOYUZIYUANZAIXIANGGUANGUOJIASHANGWEINENGSHIXIANGAOXIAOPEIZHIHELIUDONG;ERSHICUFANGSHIHEZUOFANGSHI,XIANGGUANGEGUOFAZHANSHUIPING、WENHUA、TESECHANYE、GAOJIAOSHUIPINGGEBUXIANGTONG,QUESHAOGENJUGEGUOYOUSHIXUEKELINGYU、KEYANBUJUCHAYIERKAIZHANDEFENCENGCI、JINGZHUNSHIHEZUOCELVEHEHEZUOMOSHI;WOGUOXIBEI、DONGBEI、XINAN、YANHAIHEGANGAOTAIFENBIEDUIYINGBUTONGDEYANXIANGUOJIA,JIYUDIYUANYOUSHIHEHEZUOCHUANTONG,GEGEQUYUDEGAODENGJIAOYUXINGCHENGLEBUTONGDEGUOJIHUAHEZUOFANGXIANG,DANGQIANSHANGWEIJINXINGKEXUEFENLEIGUIHUA,YESHIDEYUXIANGGUANGUOJIAGAOXIAOJIANDEHEZUOCHENGXIANDIANZHUANG、JIAOCHADEXIANZHUANG,WEIXINGCHENGXUEKEJIQUNYOUSHIHEJIAODADEGUOJIYINGXIANGLI;SANSHIGUONEIGAODENGJIAOYUZIYUANBUJUBUHELI。XIBUWEIYU“YIDAIYILU”JIANSHEDEHEXINQU,YONGYOUSHIFENFENGFUDENENGYUANZIYUANHEKUANGCHANZIYUANDENGZHANLVEWUZI,YEZAIDILIWEIZHI、ZONGJIAOWENHUA、JINGMAOHEZUODENGFANGMIANYUXIANGGUANGUOJIAYOUTIANRANYOUSHI。DANMUQIANXIBUYOUZHIGAODENGJIAOYUZIYUANFEICHANGKUIFA,QIBANXUESHILISHANGBUNENGZAIRENCAI、KEJI、GUOJIJIAOLIUDENGFANGMIANYOUXIAOZHICHENG“YIDAIYILU”JIANSHEXUQIU。GUOZHISUOXU,XIAOZHISUOZHONG,JIANGXIBUDEZIYUANYOUSHIZHUANHUAWEIFAZHANYOUSHI,SHIXIBUGAOXIAOYIBURONGCIDEZERENHESHIMING。

  ZAICISHIZHUDAOXINGBUGOU。XIANGGUANGEGUOJIAOYUGEJUTESE、YOUJIAOQIANGHUBUXING,HAIYOUJUDAHEZUOKONGJIANYOUDAIKAITUO。ZUOWEICHANGYIFAQIGUO,“YIDAIYILU”GOUXIANGDAOBIWOGUOCONGGUOJIHEZUOCANYUZHEXIANGZHUDAOZHEJIAOSEZHUANBIAN,CONGJIANSHEJIAOYUGONGTONGTI、DAOZUZHIFANGSHIHEJIZHISHEJI,ZAIDAOSHISHIBUZHOUYUJIAOLIUXIANGMU,DOUXUYAOYOUZUZHIDIZHUDAOHEXIEDIAO。DANZHANGQIYILAI“XIFANGYUJING”XIADEHEZUOMOSHI、HEZUOJIEGOUJUYUZHULIU,GUONEIGAOXIAOZAIGUOJIGAODENGJIAOYUHEZUOTIXIZHONGCHUYUGENSUIZHE、CANYUZHEDEWEIZHI,DUIYUZHUDAOQUYUGAODENGJIAOYUXIETONGHEZUOJINGYANBUZU;KEYANHEZUOFANGMIAN,ZAIDUOGUOGUOJIHEZUOXIANGMU、GAOZHILIANGYANJIU、ZHONGDAKEXUEQIANYANYANJIUZHONGWOGUODADUOCHUYUCONGSHUDIWEI;XUESHUYINGXIANGLIFANGMIAN,ZUOWEIGUIMOZHANSHIJIEGAODENGJIAOYUZONGGUIMOYICHAO20%DEGAODENGJIAOYUDIYIDAGUO,WOGUOGUOJIXUESHUHUAYUQUANYUGAODENGJIAOYUSHILICUNZAICUOWEI,XUEZHEZAIGUOJIXUESHUZUZHIZHONGRENZHIJIAOSHAO,ZAIZHONGYAOGUOJIXUESHUNIANHUISHANGFASHENGJIAOSHAO,HUAYUQUANBUZU;WENHUAJIAOLIUFANGMIAN,DUIYUTIQUZUIDAGONGYUESHUNINGJUWENHUAGONGSHI、DAJIANQINGNIANWENHUADUOBIANDUIHUAYUJIAOWANGPINGTAI、CHUANGXINWENHUACHUANBOMOSHIDENGFANGMIANDEZHUDONGXINGHAIBUGOU;ZHEIXIEZAIYIDINGCHENGDUSHANGJUNYINGXIANGLEGAODENGJIAOYUCHIXUSHENHUAHEZUODEJINCHENG。

3.新理念与新作为

高频彩平台  “YIDAIYILU”DUIGAOXIAO“SHUANGYILIU”JIANSHEYINGXIANGSHENYUAN,TAWEIRENCAIPEIYANGYUKEJICHUANGXINTUOKUANLEXINLINGYU,WEIRENLIZIYUANKAIFATUOZHANLEXINTUJING,WEIWENHUAJIAOLIUDAJIANLEXINPINGTAI,WEIZHIKUJIANSHEHEZHILIZIYUANHUIJUTIGONGLEXINQUDAO。GAOXIAOLIYINGYIXINLINIAN、XINZUOWEI,CUJINGAODENGJIAOYUZAIGENGDAFANWEI、GENGGAOSHUIPING、GENGSHENCENGCIDEKAIFANGGONGXIANG,ZAITUIJIN“YIDAIYILU”JIANSHEZHONGCHUANGXINCHAOYUE、SHIXIANKUAYUESHIFAZHAN。

  YISHIYAOTISHENGZHANWEI,FUWUGUOJIAFAZHANZHANLVEXUQIU。GAOXIAOYAOZHUDONGDANDANG、JIJIXINGDONG,ZAIFUWURENLEISHEHUIJINBUHEGUOJIAFAZHANZHONGTIXIANJIAZHIDANDANG。YAOCUJINRENCAIPEIYANGSHENGJI,TONGGUOCHUANGXINRENCAIPEIYANGJIZHI,JIJITANSUOJIAOYUKECHENGTIXIBIAOZHUNHUAJIANSHE,ZHUBUKAIZHANBIAOZHUNTONGYIDEPINGGUSHOUQUANRENZHENG,CUJINKUAGUOKUAJINGHURENXUEFENHEBIYEZHENG,TANSUOZHIYEJINENGJIANDINGHEZHIYEZIGEZHENGSHUZHIDU,SHIGELEIRENCAIPINGJIAYOUYIZHIBIAOZHUN;YAOCUJINSHIZIDUIWUSHENGJI,TONGGUOWANSHANRENCAILIUDONGJIZHI,WEIGAOCENGCISHIZIDUIWULIUDONGTIGONGZHENGCEZHICHI,BINGJINYIBUXINAYOUSHIJIANJINGYAN、SHUXIXIANGGUANGUOJIAQINGKUANGDEGONGCHENGSHIJINRUSHIZIDUIWU,YOUHUARENLIZIYUANPEIZHI,TONGSHIJIANSHEGAODUANZHIKU,WEIZONGJIETUIGUANGJICENGCHUANGXIN、FENGXIANPINGGUDENGZUOHAOZHISHICHUBEIHERENCAICHUBEI;YAOCUJINXUEKEZHUANYEJIANSHESHENGJI,JUJIAOZHONGDIAN,TUCHUWENTIDAOXIANG,ZAIJIZHONGYOUSHIGONGGUCHUANTONGXUEKEDETONGSHI,JIAQIANGQINGJIENENGYUAN、DASHUJU、RENGONGZHINENGDENGXINXINGJIAOCHAXUEKE;YAOCUJINKEJIFUWUSHENGJI,JINMITIEHEXINGYEQIYEZHUANXINGSHENGJIXUYAO,YICHANJIAORONGHE、XIAOQIHEZUOWEIZHUASHOU,SHISHI“JIAOYUHEZUOKUANGJIA+RENCAIPEIYANG+QIYEXIANGMUZHICHENG”DEYUNZUOMOSHI,GUANTONGJIAOYULIAN、CHANYELIAN、RENCAILIANHECHUANGXINLIAN。

  ERSHIYAOJIAQIANGTONGCHOUXIETONG,XINGCHENGFAZHANHELI。YAOGOUJIANDUOBIANHEZUOJIZHI,JIANSHEGAODUANDUIHUAPINGTAIBINGDINGQIZHAOKAIHUIYIQIANGHUAXINXIJIAOLIUHECHANGTONG,JIAQIANGDUIRENCAIXUQIU、KEJICHENGGUOZHUANHUADENGPINGTAIHEXINXIKUJIANSHE,JIANLIXINXIGONGXIANGJIZHI,CUJINXIANGMU、RENCAIHEZIJINDENGDUOFANGDUIJIE;YAOJIAQIANGDUOGUOYOUQISHISANGUOJIYISHANGDEGUOJIHEZUO,TONGGUOYATOUXINGDENGQUDAOSHELIZHUANXIANGZHONGDAKEJIGONGGUANXIANGMUZIJIN,ZUZHIBINGSHISHI“YIDAIYILU”YUJINGXIADEGUOJIKEXUEZHONGDAXIANGMU,BIRU“KUAGUOYOUQISHUSONG”“KUAHAIDAQIAO”DENGFUZAGONGCHENGLINGYU,GEGUOKEYANGONGZUOZHEJUNKESHENQING,ZUJIANLIANHEYANJIUTUANDUI,CHENGGUOYONGYUHUIJIGEGUOFAZHAN;YAOKAIZHANJINGZHUNSHIHEZUO,CONGHONGGUANSHANGZHIDINGZHENGCEHEZHIDAOYIJIANJINXINGYINDAO,GULIGUONEIGAOXIAOGEZIFAHUIQUYUYOUSHIHEXUEKEYOUSHIJIAQIANGYUYANXIANGUOJIAHEZUO,BIRUJIAQIANGWOGUOXIBEIDIQUGAOXIAOYUZHONGYA、XIYA、ZHONGDONGOUGUOJIALIANXI,CUJINXIANGXIKAIFANG;JIAQIANGDONGBEIDIQUGAOXIAOYUELUOSIYUANDONGDIQUHEZUODEYOUSHI,CUJINXIANGBEIKAIFANG;JIAQIANGXINANDIQUGAOXIAOYUDONGMENGGUOJIADEHEZUO,DAZAOMIANXIANGDONGNANYA、NANYADEZHONGYAOMENHU;JIAQIANGDONGNANYANHAIDIQUGAOXIAOYUGANGAOTAIGAOXIAODEQUANFANGWEIHEZUODENGDENG。TONGGUOJIANLILIANXIJINMI、FENGONGXIEZUO、GAOXIAOPEIHEDESHIZHIXINGHEZUOJIZHI,XINGCHENGJIQUNYOUSHI,TISHENGGUOJIYINGXIANGLI;YAOTISHENGXIBUGAODENGJIAOYUSHUIPING,TUIJINXIBUGAODENGJIAOYUSHIXIANKUAYUESHIFAZHAN。DUANQINEICAIQUHUIJIGEFANGZIYUANQIANGHUAYUANJIAN、ZHIJIEYINJINYOUZHIGAODENGJIAOYUZIYUANDENGFANGSHIZUIWEIKUAIJIEKEXING,BIRU,ZHONGGUOSHIYOUDAXUE(BEIJING)JIYUYUKELAMAYIZHEIZUO“SHIYOUCHENG”DEZHANGQIHEZUO,ZAIKELAMAYISHEZHIXINXIAOQU,JIAQIANGXIBUJINQUEDEGONGCHENGYINGYONGXINGRENCAIPEIYANG。JINNIAN5YUE,JIAOYUBUQIANTOU14SUOBUSHUGAOXIAOZHICHIGONGJIANXIAOQU,TONGGUOTUIJINYUANCHENGZHIHUIJIAOYUPINGTAIHELIANHEYANJIUYUAN、JIANLIGEGAOXIAOSHISHENGSHEHUISHIJIANJIDI、XUANPAIYOUXIUSHIZIFUXIAOQUCANYUYUANJIANDENGGONGZUO,BUDUANTISHENGGAODENGJIAOYUFUWUDIFANGJINGJISHEHUIFAZHANDENENGLI,ZHEIYESHIYOUHUAGAODENGJIAOYUGONGJICEJIEGOUXINGGAIGEDEZHONGYAOTUJING。

  SANSHIYAOWANCHENGJIAOSEZHUANBIAN,ZHUDAOGOUJIANGAODENGJIAOYUHEZUOXINGEJU。YAODAPOGUANXINGSIWEI,SHULIYONGYUDAPOJIUTIXI、JIANLIXINTIXIDEJINQUXINGXUESHUQIZHI,HONGYANGGANYUCHONGJISHIJIEYILIU、GANYUCHAOYUEKEJILONGDUANDELINGPAOXINGXUESHUJINGSHEN;YAOJIJIGOUJIANJIYU“YIDAIYILU”JIAZHITIXIDEGAODENGJIAOYUPINGJIABIAOZHUNHEHEZUOJIZHI,GONGJIAN“YIDAIYILU”JIAOYUGONGTONGTI,HUJIANXIANJINJINGYAN,GONGXIANGYOUZHIZIYUAN,GONGTONGTISHENGZHILIANG;YAOBAGAOXIAOQINGNIANXUEZIJIANDEWENHUAJIAOLIUZUOWEIMINXINXIANGTONGDEZHONGYAOZUCHENG,FENGFUNEIRONGZAITI,JIANGHAOWENHUAGUSHI,ZENGSHEWENHUAJIAOLIUXIANGMU,SHIZUNZHONG、XINSHANG、GONGXIANGDUOYANGHUAWENMINGCHENGGUOCHENGWEIQINGNIANJIAZHIGUANDEJICHU;YAOYIDIANDAIXIAN、YOUXIANDAOMIAN,CHONGFENWAJUEGEGUOJIAOYUZIYUANHEBIJIAOYOUSHI,TUIDONGSHISHENGJIAOLIU、KECHENGGONGJIANGONGXIANG、LIANHEBANXUEDENGGEGECENGCIDUOYUANHUAHEZUOJIAOLIU;YAOZHUDONGXIEDIAO,QIANTOUZUJIANFENLINGYU、DUOCENGCIDEGAOXIAOLIANMENGHUOXUESHUZUZHI,QIANTOUJIANLIXIETONGYANJIUSHITIHELIANHEPEIYANGJIDI,TUIJINJIAOSHIHAIWAIYANXIU、PEIXUNJIDIYIJIXUESHENGKUAJINGSHIXI、SHIJIANJIDIJIANSHE,CHUANGSHETIAOJIANZHICHIJIAOSHI、XUESHENGDAOGELEIGUOJIZUZHIZHONGRENZHI,ZAIFUWU“YIDAIYILU”JIANSHEZHONGTISHENGBENLING、ZENGZHANGCAIGAN。

(作者:张来斌,系中国石油大学〔北京〕校长)


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